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FRANCE.                                                 561
trade in the lines of heavy machinery or structures until their present methods of hand labor are revolutionized. In the southern 1 [gait of this division Algerian ore is used, as well as some from the Pyrenees. In 1888 there were 24 blast furnaces reported in blast, but ten years later, in 1898, only 16 were in operation. Table XXV-D gives a list of the steel works in this district.
SEC. XXVe.—The South:
The southern district covers the provinces of G-ard, Aveyron, Ardeche, Benches du Rhone and Ariege, and includes the coal field of Alais in Gard, which gives a coke that is used in the blast furnaces of Besseges and T'amari. There is also a deposit in Aveyron, which, though poorer than the Alais coal., will run over 18 per cent, in volatile matter and will give a marketable coke in Coppee ovens. In the southeast there are deposits of lignite, the province of Benches du Rhone raising 490,000 tons in 1899, and neighboring districts contributing 117,000 tons. Some of this is sent to
TABLE XXV-E. Steel Works in the South of France.
Note:  Those marked (B) have Bessemer converters^
Province.	Companies.	Location.
	Societe Metallurgique de 1' Ariege ...................	Parnlers Decazeville Besseges and Alala
Aveyron .........	Soci6t6 anonyme de Commentry-Fourchambault et Decazeville .......... . .............................	
Gard .............		
	Compagnie des Mines, Fonderies et Forges d' Alais. (B)	
Switzerland and Italy. The quality of this fuel is not good and the supply is scant, so that one-quarter of all the coal consumed in this part of the country is imported from England. The iron industry has received an impetus from recent developments in the Pyrenees; these mountains have long supplied ore in moderate quantities, but it is likely that the output will be increased. Some ore is brought from Algeria. In 1888 there were nine blast furnaces in operation, while in 1898 there were eleven in blast3 some of these in the region near the Pyrenees being small and using charcoal for fuel. Table XXV-E gives a list of the steel works in the district. SEC. XXVf.—The Northwest (Loire Inferieure) and the Southwest (Landes):